New Zealanders in Sweden should be aware that there is a risk of tick-borne encephalitis in spring/summer/autumn. The risk is greatest along the southern coastline from Uppsala to Karlshamm, though the disease has recently spread to new areas. Most cases occur in the counties of Stockholm, Södermanland, and Uppsala, and to a lesser extent in the county of Västra Götaland, south of Lake Vänern. The incidence has been rising steadily since the mid-1980s. 190 cases were reported in 2007 (62% of cases were recorded in the Stockholm counties). Sporadic cases occur in the rest of Sweden annually. Vaccination is recommended.